Journal Entry 4: ReflectionOne thing that made you think more than any other your were exposed in this course




As mentioned in the VCC website under courses/programs (Unknown, 2013), the purpose of the PIDP 3250 Instructional Strategies course is to present its partakers with a variety of instructional strategies and techniques that they can adapt to their teaching styles/practices and learning environments. Participants of this course will be presented with the following: motivational strategies to engage learners, managing the classroom environment, how to foster creativity and critical thinking.  The course primarily focuses the on the following instructional strategies: journal writing, reflective practices, group discussions, interactive lectures and collaborative learning assignments (Unknown, 2013).



When I first viewed the assigned topic for this journal entry, “ Journal on one thing that made you think more than any other your were exposed in this course”, to be honest nothing came to my mind abruptly.  I sat on my bed with my laptop for a good 20 minutes before I started to jot down what came to my mind. As I reflected on what I learned from this course I kept on thinking about how anxious I became when I viewed the volume of posts in the online discussions (even though I went online everyday) and how I was consistently struggling to just sift through and read all the activity in the class discussion forums.  At one point I was so exhausted from examining the readings presented/recommended in the discussions that I failed to post the information I was posting in the group forums onto my blog (letting things pile up). I have taken many classes online but I felt that in this particular class I was constantly running behind, didn’t have anything “new” to add to the discussions as there was so much discussed so quickly by a few very active classmates. So after some thought on one thing that made me think more than anything else I was exposed to in this course was the overwhelming feeling and anxiety I got from the group discussions/volume of posts.




I have learned quite a bit from this course and I whole-heartedly agree with the course description, as it’s an accurate reflection of what the course is about.  I am well aware of the advantages and disadvantages of online learning; however, I must say that it is very different to actually experience them first hand. I have been very fortunate to experience the advantages of online learning.  As mentioned by Kumar Dhirendra (2010) in the article, “Pros and Cons of Online Education” the advantages I have had the opportunity to experience include its convenience in relation to study location, course duration, time, access to recourses and high quality dialog. Dhirendra (2010) also examines the additional benefits of online learning such as, synergy where there is a, “…High level of dynamic interaction between the instructor and students as well as among the students themselves. Ideas and resources are shared, and continuous synergy will be generated through the learning process as each individual contributes to the course discussions and comments on classmates’ work. [and]…creative teaching: In the adult education class with the interactive learning environment may contribute to self-direction and critical thinking. Especially the nature of the semi-autonomous and self-directed world of the virtual classroom makes innovative and creative approaches to instruction even more important.” (Dhirendra, 2010).  I could not agree more with Dhirendra’s thoughts as this course as well as my previous online courses enabled me to experience the benefits of synergy and creative teaching/learning. I also found myself doing my best to ensure that before commenting/participating in dialog that what I had to offer was of high quality. Some of the challenges I came across with in regards to online discussions I felt was that although conversations were very rich in reflections of my peers that there was monopolization and lack of focus in the conversations (there were too many general comments). For instance, there were high volumes of “thank-you” and I agree with your thoughts posts. Often just seeing the amount of daily postings caused me anxiety and I found it very time consuming sifting through the posts. As mentioned in the paper, “Ground Rules in Online Discussions: Help or Hindrance?” by Kari Morgan (2006) that some of the challenges that I have come across are common in online discussions and that, “Instructors that have used discussions have found specific rules and guidelines to be a necessary component of the classroom’s structure. Ground rules prevent problems from occurring that can interfere with learning such as lack of participation, monopolization, lack of focus in the conversations, or student anxiety.” (Morgan, 2006).  So although I learned so much from the course and what my peers had to offer I really felt overwhelmed and anxious.



Having experienced first hand some of the unique challenges of online learning I now really understand that they are real and not just hypothetical. I cannot express how valuable even experiencing the challenges of online learning are-as I feel that I can be more mindful of the potential pitfalls of online education and what some challenges learners can come across.  So what can I as a learning facilitator do to prevent or reduce the chances of this from occurring in my learning environment? As mentioned by Morgan (2006) I can establish guidelines that will help, “…support a positive learning environment and maximize the beneficial aspects of discussions (Brookfield & Preskill, 2005; Bryant, 2005; Suler, 2004). Ground rules can serve as a means of clarifying instructor expectations regarding the content and/or quality of online discussion postings, which enhances the overall experience for all participants.” (Morgan, 2006). Chad Shorter (2011) presents some great guidelines that I will utilize and present to my students and share in my online learning environment in his article, “Guidelines for Effective Online Discussions”.  I believe that is will be a best practice that will use so that I can ultimately foster a positive learning environment and positive online learning experiences.  I believe all experiences are valuable and have something we can take away from them-even not so positive ones.  I have extracted as much as I could from my experiences in this course and am able to say that all of my accumulated knowledge and experiences are very valuable.



Dhirendra, K. (2010). Pros and Cons of Online Education. [Website]. Retrieved from

Morgan, K. (2006). Ground Rules in Online Discussions: Help or Hindrance?. [Website]. Retrieved from

Shorter, C. (2011). Guidelines for Effective Online Discussions. [Website]. Retrieved from

Unknown. (2013). Instructional Strategies (PIDP 3250). Website. Retrieved from

The Fountain of Tooth


Hi Everyone,

This blog is the second one I have created. My first one is called, “The Fountain of Tooth”. It has some great resources and information relating to the social in education and dental health education. Please take a look and follow if it interests you! The following is a blurp of the blog : )

” Welcome to the Fountain of Tooth!!

What is Fountain of Tooth? This is a blog that will focus primarily on dental consciousness (interesting facts, myths, dental technology, research/developments in the dental world) in the hopes of improving to your oral health and dental IQ” Link:

Let me know what you think!




Instructional Strategies Videos Made by My Classmates


Instructional Strategies Video Links Created by my Classmates-Please Check them out!

Jennifer R. (The Growth Portfolio) Link:

Cheryl J. (The Demonstration Strategy) Link:

Lesley F. ( Story Telling) Link:

Susan F. (Team Jeopardy) Link:

Jaspal A. (Case Studies) Link:

Connie K. (Journals) Link:

Time E. (Jigsaws) Link:

David M. (Root Cause Analysis)  Link:

Stacy F. (Send a Problem) Link:

Sharon D. (Stations) Link:

Sherri M. (Think-Pair-Share) Link:

Md S. (Role Playing))Link:

Jean-Blaise K. (Dyadic Interview: Chatter About Internal Audit) Link:

Learning Styles and Strategies



Hi Everyone,

Recognizing the different learning styles can help an educator choose the best way to teach his/her learners. It can also help the educator choose the appropriate teaching and learning strategies to ensure that the needs of the learners are met…thus fostering successful learning…Here is a great article that sheds light on the different types of learners and how learners can help themselves learn and educators can promote learning for each type of learner. Link:

The following is the article:


Richard M. Felder
Hoechst Celanese Professor of Chemical Engineering
North Carolina State University

Barbara A. Soloman
Coordinator of Advising, First Year College
North Carolina State University


  • Active learners tend to retain and understand information best by doing something active with it–discussing or applying it or explaining it to others. Reflective learners prefer to think about it quietly first.
  • “Let’s try it out and see how it works” is an active learner’s phrase; “Let’s think it through first” is the reflective learner’s response.
  • Active learners tend to like group work more than reflective learners, who prefer working alone.
  • Sitting through lectures without getting to do anything physical but take notes is hard for both learning types, but particularly hard for active learners.

Everybody is active sometimes and reflective sometimes. Your preference for one category or the other may be strong, moderate, or mild. A balance of the two is desirable. If you always act before reflecting you can jump into things prematurely and get into trouble, while if you spend too much time reflecting you may never get anything done.

How can active learners help themselves?

If you are an active learner in a class that allows little or no class time for discussion or problem-solving activities, you should try to compensate for these lacks when you study. Study in a group in which the members take turns explaining different topics to each other. Work with others to guess what you will be asked on the next test and figure out how you will answer. You will always retain information better if you find ways to do something with it.

How can reflective learners help themselves?

If you are a reflective learner in a class that allows little or no class time for thinking about new information, you should try to compensate for this lack when you study. Don’t simply read or memorize the material; stop periodically to review what you have read and to think of possible questions or applications. You might find it helpful to write short summaries of readings or class notes in your own words. Doing so may take extra time but will enable you to retain the material more effectively.


  • Sensing learners tend to like learning facts, intuitive learners often prefer discovering possibilities and relationships.
  • Sensors often like solving problems by well-established methods and dislike complications and surprises; intuitors like innovation and dislike repetition. Sensors are more likely than intuitors to resent being tested on material that has not been explicitly covered in class.
  • Sensors tend to be patient with details and good at memorizing facts and doing hands-on (laboratory) work; intuitors may be better at grasping new concepts and are often more comfortable than sensors with abstractions and mathematical formulations.
  • Sensors tend to be more practical and careful than intuitors; intuitors tend to work faster and to be more innovative than sensors.
  • Sensors don’t like courses that have no apparent connection to the real world; intuitors don’t like “plug-and-chug” courses that involve a lot of memorization and routine calculations.

Everybody is sensing sometimes and intuitive sometimes. Your preference for one or the other may be strong, moderate, or mild. To be effective as a learner and problem solver, you need to be able to function both ways. If you overemphasize intuition, you may miss important details or make careless mistakes in calculations or hands-on work; if you overemphasize sensing, you may rely too much on memorization and familiar methods and not concentrate enough on understanding and innovative thinking.

How can sensing learners help themselves?

Sensors remember and understand information best if they can see how it connects to the real world. If you are in a class where most of the material is abstract and theoretical, you may have difficulty. Ask your instructor for specific examples of concepts and procedures, and find out how the concepts apply in practice. If the teacher does not provide enough specifics, try to find some in your course text or other references or by brainstorming with friends or classmates.

How can intuitive learners help themselves?

Many college lecture classes are aimed at intuitors. However, if you are an intuitor and you happen to be in a class that deals primarily with memorization and rote substitution in formulas, you may have trouble with boredom. Ask your instructor for interpretations or theories that link the facts, or try to find the connections yourself. You may also be prone to careless mistakes on test because you are impatient with details and don’t like repetition (as in checking your completed solutions). Take time to read the entire question before you start answering and be sure to check your results


Visual learners remember best what they see–pictures, diagrams, flow charts, time lines, films, and demonstrations. Verbal learners get more out of words–written and spoken explanations. Everyone learns more when information is presented both visually and verbally.

In most college classes very little visual information is presented: students mainly listen to lectures and read material written on chalkboards and in textbooks and handouts. Unfortunately, most people are visual learners, which means that most students do not get nearly as much as they would if more visual presentation were used in class. Good learners are capable of processing information presented either visually or verbally.

How can visual learners help themselves?

If you are a visual learner, try to find diagrams, sketches, schematics, photographs, flow charts, or any other visual representation of course material that is predominantly verbal. Ask your instructor, consult reference books, and see if any videotapes or CD-ROM displays of the course material are available. Prepare a concept map by listing key points, enclosing them in boxes or circles, and drawing lines with arrows between concepts to show connections. Color-code your notes with a highlighter so that everything relating to one topic is the same color.

How can verbal learners help themselves?

Write summaries or outlines of course material in your own words. Working in groups can be particularly effective: you gain understanding of material by hearing classmates’ explanations and you learn even more when you do the explaining.


  • Sequential learners tend to gain understanding in linear steps, with each step following logically from the previous one. Global learners tend to learn in large jumps, absorbing material almost randomly without seeing connections, and then suddenly “getting it.”
  • Sequential learners tend to follow logical stepwise paths in finding solutions; global learners may be able to solve complex problems quickly or put things together in novel ways once they have grasped the big picture, but they may have difficulty explaining how they did it.

Many people who read this description may conclude incorrectly that they are global, since everyone has experienced bewilderment followed by a sudden flash of understanding. What makes you global or not is what happens before the light bulb goes on. Sequential learners may not fully understand the material but they can nevertheless do something with it (like solve the homework problems or pass the test) since the pieces they have absorbed are logically connected. Strongly global learners who lack good sequential thinking abilities, on the other hand, may have serious difficulties until they have the big picture. Even after they have it, they may be fuzzy about the details of the subject, while sequential learners may know a lot about specific aspects of a subject but may have trouble relating them to different aspects of the same subject or to different subjects.

How can sequential learners help themselves?

Most college courses are taught in a sequential manner. However, if you are a sequential learner and you have an instructor who jumps around from topic to topic or skips steps, you may have difficulty following and remembering. Ask the instructor to fill in the skipped steps, or fill them in yourself by consulting references. When you are studying, take the time to outline the lecture material for yourself in logical order. In the long run doing so will save you time. You might also try to strengthen your global thinking skills by relating each new topic you study to things you already know. The more you can do so, the deeper your understanding of the topic is likely to be.

How can global learners help themselves?

If you are a global learner, it can be helpful for you to realize that you need the big picture of a subject before you can master details. If your instructor plunges directly into new topics without bothering to explain how they relate to what you already know, it can cause problems for you. Fortunately, there are steps you can take that may help you get the big picture more rapidly. Before you begin to study the first section of a chapter in a text, skim through the entire chapter to get an overview. Doing so may be time-consuming initially but it may save you from going over and over individual parts later. Instead of spending a short time on every subject every night, you might find it more productive to immerse yourself in individual subjects for large blocks. Try to relate the subject to things you already know, either by asking the instructor to help you see connections or by consulting references. Above all, don’t lose faith in yourself; you will eventually understand the new material, and once you do your understanding of how it connects to other topics and disciplines may enable you to apply it in ways that most sequential thinkers would never dream of.
What do you think? Are these effective suggestions?



Questioning Toolkit



Hi Everyone,

Here is another great resource that can be used to help identify the different types of questions that can be asked and what purposes they serve. Very informative! Here is the link to the article: 

From Now On
The Educational Technology Journal

Vol 7|No 3|November-December|1997

 A Questioning ToolkitEach district should create a Questioning Toolkit which contains several dozen kinds of questions and questioning tools. This Questioning Toolkit should be printed in large type on posters which reside on classroom walls close by networked, information-rich computers.

Portions of the Questioning Toolkit should be introduced as early as Kindergarten so that students can bring powerful questioning technologies and techniques with them as they arrive in high school.

Essential Questions Subsidiary Questions Hypothetical Questions Telling Questions Planning Questions
Organizing Questions Probing Questions Sorting & Sifting Questions Clarification Questions Strategic Questions
Elaborating Questions Unanswerable Questions Inventive Questions Provocative Questions Irrelevant Questions
Divergent Questions Irreverent Questions

 Essential Questions

These are questions which touch our hearts and souls. They are central to our lives. They help to define what it means to be human.

Most important thought during our lives will center on such essential questions.

  • What does it mean to be a good friend?
  • What kind of friend shall I be?
  • Who will I include in my circle of friends?
  • How shall I treat my friends?
  • How do I cope with the loss of a friend?
  • What can I learn about friends and friendships from the novels we read in school?
  • How can I be a better friend?

If we were to draw a cluster diagram of the Questioning Toolkit,Essential Questions would be at the center of all the other types of questions. All the other questions and questioning skills serve the purpose of “casting light upon” or illuminatingEssential Questions.

Most Essential Questions are interdisciplinary in nature. They cut across the lines created by schools and scholars to mark the terrain of departments and disciplines.

Essential Questions probe the deepest issues confronting us . . . complex and baffling matters which elude simple answers: Life – Death – Marriage – Identity – Purpose – Betrayal – Honor – Integrity – Courage – Temptation – Faith – Leadership – Addiction – Invention – Inspiration.

The greatest novels, the greatest plays, the greatest songs and the greatest paintings all explore Essential Questions in some manner.

Essential Questions are at the heart of the search for Truth.

Many of us believe that schools should devote more time toEssential Questions and less time to Trivial Pursuit.

One major reform effort, the Coalition of Essential Schools, has made Essential Questions a keystone of its learning strategy. (Visit the Coalition Web site).

Essential Questions offer the organizing focus for a unit. If the U.S. History class will spend a month on a topic such as the Civil War, students explore the events and the experience with a mind toward casting light upon one of the following questions, or they develop Essential Questions of their own . . .

  • Why do we have to fight wars?
  • Do we have to fight wars?
  • How could political issues or ideas ever become more important than family loyalties?
  • Some say our country remains wounded by the slavery experience and the Civil War. In what ways might this claim be true and in what ways untrue? What evidence can you supply to substantiate your case?
  • Military officers often complain that the effective conduct of modern war is impeded by political interference and popular pressures on the home front. To what extent did this also prove true during the Civil War?
  • How can countries avoid the kind of bloodshed and devastation we experienced during our Civil War?
  • How much diversity can any nation tolerate?
  • Who showed greater bravery and courage, the front line soldiers and the nurses who tended to the wounded and dying or the leaders of the war effort?
  • Should there be a law against war profiteering?

For more on Essential Questions read this other selection.

 Subsidiary QuestionsThese are questions which combine to help us build answers to our Essential Questions. Big questions spawn families of smaller questions which lead to insight. The more skillful we and our students become at formulating and then categorizing Subsidiary Questions, the more success we will have constructing new knowledge. All of the question categories listed and explained below are types of Subsidiary Questions.

We have several strategies from which to choose when developing a comprehensive list of Subsidiary Questions for our project:

  • We can brainstorm and list every question which comes to mind, utilizing a huge sheet of paper or a word processing program or a graphical organizing program such asInspiration (, putting down the questions as they “come to mind.” Later we can move these around until they end up along side of related questions. This movement is one advantage of software. This approach has the benefit of spontaneity.
  • We can take a list of question categories like the one outlined in this article and generate questions for each category. This approach helps provoke thought and questions in categories which we might not otherwise consider.

In the (condensed) illustration below, a team is pondering the following Essential Question:

What is the best way for our school to involve students in the use of e-mail?

They begin by listing every question they can think up. They have one member type the list into the outlining part of Inspiration. They could use a word processor instead, but Inspiration will automatically convert their outline into a variety of diagrams and will allow them to move questions around later.

Best way to involve students in the use of e-mail?

Worst that can happen?
Potential benefits?
Obstacles which must be overcome?
Available resources?
Sufficient resources?
Additional resources?
Good models?
How prepare students?
How prepare parents?
Relationship to discipline code?
Who does what?
Assessing progress?

This outline is transformed in seconds by a simple mouse-click into the following cluster diagram . . .

The lack of order and logic should be immediately visible.

This diagram needs to be re-drawn.

No problem.

Point. Click. Drag!

In just 4-5 minutes, we have a cluster diagram which groups (and colors) questions.


Credits: Drawings, photographs and graphics are by Jamie McKenzie.

Copyright Policy: Materials published in From Now Onmay be duplicated in hard copy format if unchanged in format and content for educational,non-profit school district use only. All other uses,transmissions and duplicationsare prohibited unless permission is granted expressly. Showing these pages remotely through frames is not permitted.
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Questioning Techniques: Types of Questions



Hi Everyone,

Here is an article that demonstrates the significance of proper questioning techniques and how as  learning facilitators we can use this technique to foster learning … Here is the link,or.r_cp.r_qf.&bvm=bv.47380653,d.cGE&fp=5e7eb439a8fb9c76&biw=695&bih=603 ( I am having trouble finding the direct link-so this one takes you to the google search and its the 2nd article that pops up from the top-lable “Questioning Techniques:  Types of Questions”

Questioning Techniques: Types of Questions

“Teachers’ skill in questioning and in leading discussions is valuable for many instructional purposes, eliciting student reflection and challenging deeper student engagement” (Danielson, 1996, p. 92).

Unskilled questioning focuses on “rapid-fire, short-answer, low-level questions” as vehicles for checking students’ knowledge. Danielson calls this “’recitation’ rather than ‘discussion’, because the questions are not true questions but rather a form of a quiz in which teachers elicit from students their knowledge on a particular topic. …poor questions…are boring, comprehensible to only a few students, or narrow—the teacher has a single answer in mind even when choices are possible” (p. 92).

Skilled questioning engages students in a true exploration of content. When they are carefully crafted and framed, questions “enable students to reflect on their understanding and consider new possibilities.” Students are allowed “think time” before responses are expected and teachers often “probe a student’s answer, seeking clarification or elaboration through such questions as, ‘Could you give an example of…?’ or ‘Would you explain what you mean?’

Additionally, well- led classroom discussions are animated and they engage all students in important questions to extend, not just recall, knowledge. In well- run discussions, teachers serve as “guides on the side,” encouraging students to take center stage, comment on others’ responses and request further explanations; the teacher sets the stage, while students are expected to assume considerable responsibility for the depth and breadth of discussions. Everyone participates, not just the “few star students.” The teacher is not waiting for “the right answer.” Well-run discussions also encourage students to pose questions. Where this happens, teachers are encouraging students to develop critical and creative thinking skills and to engage in analytical thinking; students often engage more deeply and are more motivated to participate when they are encouraged to be the questioners. In this type of discussion, “the perspectives of all students are sought; all voices are heard.”

Even the best-planned and -run discussions may go off on an occasional tangent. To maintain a thought-provoking, focused discussion, the teacher needs to be able to find a respectful way to bring the group back to task without cutting off or putting down those who are off track.

Danielson’s “take” on the quality of questions, discussion techniques, and student participation from the perspective of the level of performance in the classroom follows (p. 94):















Quality of questions


Teacher’s questions are poor

Some of the teacher’s questions are low, some high quality; only some invite a response


Most questions are high quality. Adequate time “thought time” is available


Questions are uniformly high quality, with adequate “thought time” built in. Students formulate many questions.


Discussion techniques

Interaction between instructor and students is primarily “recitation” style; teacher mediates all questions and responses

Teacher makes some attempt to engage students in meaningful discussion, with uneven results

Classroom interaction represents true discussion, with teacher stepping, when appropriate, to the side

Students assume considerable responsibility for the success of the discussion, initiating topics and making unsolicited contributions


Student participation



Only a few students participate


Teacher attempts to engage all students, but with only limited success


Teacher successfully engages all students


Students themselves ensure that all voices are heard in the discussion


You may want to visit some or all of these Web sites:




The Negative Power of Positive Thinking?



Hi Everyone,

Is there such thing as being too positive or having negative consequences of thinking positively?? The following website explores these questions and much more-very interesting!! Link: 

Excerpt from website:


What do positive and negative mean?
Barbara Ehrenreich and the Negative Power of Positive Thinking
Hidden Dangers of ‘The Secret’
Believing You Must Not Think Negatively Can Rebound
The White Bear Effect
Perils of Positive Praise
Our Philosophy May Be Holding Us Back
Positive Thoughts May Be Holding You Back
Positive Benefits of Negative Moods
Suppressing Negative Emotions Can Lead To Greater Understanding and Growth
The Positive Side To Pain And Other Negative Emotions
Negative Motivation
Taking Action
How to Harness the Power of Negative Thinking
Illuminating the Negative to Enhance the Power of Negative Thinking in Business

Many writers extol the benefits of positive thinking, but few tell us of the disadvantages, and we hear even less about the benefits of negative thinking. They do not tell us we need a dash of negative thinking to season our thinking to avoid the extremes of positive thinking: unrealistic thinking, recklessness and positive apathy. They do not warn us that positive thinking alone — without the balancing negative — can lead to blunders in politics, business, education, wellbeing and health.

Yet other writers, such as Barbara Ehrenreich, do warn us that positive thinking led to many of the problems in America and in the Western world, such as the over-optimism about the Iraq War, and the Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident. Furthermore, Positive Thinking books sometimes make claims contrary to science and common sense. They sometimes use the insidious trap in positive thinking called the ‘white bear effect.’ They often exploit the self-developer’s unrealistic personal philosophy, particularly idealism, but ignoring realism and rationalism. The positive thinkers do not tell us that ultra-positive mentors may actually damage the ability of children to learn, even though psychologist Carol Dweck, for instance, has shown that in certain circumstances positive praise can have undesirable effects.

Furthermore, according to a number of researchers, such as Gabriele Oettingen, positive thinking without a negative balance hinders our ability and even our health. The craze for positive thinking overlooks the value of Negative Thinking. For instance, negative thinking can have unexpected positive effects on our memory, judgment and motivation. In business, some negative thinking — a critical evaluation of plans, makes companies more successful by preparing them for unexpected problems, and encouraging managers to plan for every possibility. In this article, I argue that to be effective, we need a sprinkling of negative thinking to balance positive thinking and to encourage action. First let us look at the meanings of the words positive and negative, because this confusion can cause problems.

What do positive and negative mean?
The word positive has various dictionary meanings, which lead to confusion, hypnotic effects and contradiction. First we look at its intended meaning and examine how it is normally used by positive thinkers.

The word positive as used in ‘positive thinking’ suggests imagining in detail and with full confidence something we want. For instance, we imagine sitting in a car we desire, we feel the steering wheel, smell the leather and think ‘This is mine.’ The word positive here means that we think in detail of something being present, we think of owning it with confidence. In addition we use the word to mean something desirable. This use of ‘positive’ puts us in mind of a joke from the earlier days of positive thinking:

Son: Dad I think I’m going to fail this course.
Dad: Now, Son, be positive!
Son: OK, Dad. I’m certain I’m going to fail this course.

The father uses the word ‘positive’ to mean ‘confident of some good result’, but the son uses it in the sense of ‘being clear and definite’. Both meanings are correct (exist in the dictionary)

Not surprisingly, we can sometimes be confused when reading the words positive and negative. For this reason they can be hard to understand because we do not know which meanings to apply. For instance, if we hear ‘She is HIV negative’, we know that the word negative means ‘no disease was detected’ and is a positive result in the sense it encourages a feeling of wellbeing. Things could get more confusing, though.

She could say, quite rationally, but at first confusing, ‘I feel very positive about this negative result, and I am glad it wasn’t positive.’

Because the word positive (and the word negative) can shift between different meanings, with one meaning implying ‘good’ and the other implying ‘bad they have within them a hypnotic effect. And from the viewpoint of ‘positive thinking’ where you need to avoid the negative at all costs, we have the irony that even the word ‘positive’ sometimes conceals a negative meaning! That is, the idea of ‘positive thinking’ contains the seeds of its own destruction, because it requires the denial of the negative, but covertly contains it within its own definitions.

Barbara Ehrenreich and the Negative Power of Positive Thinking
Barbara Ehrenreich in her book Bright-sided: How the Relentless Promotion of Positive Thinking Has Undermined America claims that positive thinking — from self-help guides to motivational speakers has dangerously weakened American so that Americans have stopped being realistic about the world around them leading to not only personal misery, but also to national failure.

First she distinguishes between positive thinking and happiness. That is, by opposing positive thinking, she is not opposing happiness. She says, “Positive thinking is a specific kind of ideology which says you have to act cheerful and optimistic and upbeat – no matter how you’re feeling – if you want to get along in the world.” That is, positive thinking tells us to try and disregard our feelings and be positive, with a warning that thinking negative will bring about just the results we do not want.

Ehrenreich says that the positive thinking movement seems to have arisen from Calvinism, and has become standard in some churches. It has become part of corporate culture making big business a big supporter of positive thinking in human resource management. Positive thinking has both a religious and corporate form. In the secular form the universe is portrayed as a big mail-order department waiting for our orders (positive or negative thoughts). In the religious version, God is said to want you to be rich — God wants you to have a larger house. And you enlist him as a sort of personal assistant to get you those things you want. (But you have to make the payments and deal with creditors!)

10 Steps to Overcome Social Anxiety

The consequences are dire. Ehrenreich does not say that positive thinking is the only cause of the financial meltdown, but, she says, “Corporate decision makers were living in a bubble of forced optimism.” She says that from interviewing insiders, corporate and Wall Street and finance industry insiders that to be too negative was to risk being fired. They feared being the bearer of bad news. They did not want to be the one who says, “This business plan is going to get us in big trouble.” This is contrary to successful approaches to business planning, which require a search for possible problems and to plan how to handle them, and to monitor progress to detect problems.

She talks about George W. Bush, the cheerleader, whose positive thinking was detrimental to the nation, particularly with Iraq and the optimistic predictions of the welcome when the American troops invaded. Those officials with doubts were outcast. Once again we see the fear that people have of presenting a negative scenario: in business and government because they fear being sacked, and in secular beliefs, because they fear that their negative thinking will bring about the very thing they fear. But as we will see below in this article, the opposite is true — negative thinking is crucial to prevent unwanted things occurring.

Unless we utilize the power of negative thinking in business and in our personal lives, we may suffer the opposites of what positive thinking promises. For instance, governments that do not utilize negative thinking will end up with more Vietnams and Iraqs. And management that do not utilize negative thinking will end up with more ‘three mile island accidents’, and bank meltdowns.

Managers can use positive thinking to manipulate their workforce. They tell people who are being laid off, that it’s really not a bad thing. It’s a great opportunity, and whatever happens to them is because of their attitude anyway. So, isn’t it great — you’ve been laid off and now you can really do well in life! Positive thinking also makes claims that are contrary to science and common sense. We mention the work of scientists Carol Dweck and Gabriele Oettingen later to show how evidence based research shows how positive fantasy can get you what you don’t want!

Hidden Dangers of ‘The Secret’
The book, ‘The Secret’ is a best seller which attracts those who wish to attain whatever they desire by thinking about it. The theory behind the book is that what we experience and have in life and who we are is determined, not by the laws of nature, but by our thinking. Whatever we experience, whether it is good or bad is caused by our thoughts. And the solution to our problem is to think positively, and not think negatively, or we will bring upon ourselves the very things we do not want.

Positive thinkers say that whatever good comes into our lives –wealth, health, love — is the result of our positive thinking. And whatever bad occurs — poverty, illness, broken relationships — comes from our negative thinking. Therefore, anyone who becomes rich or becomes healthy, or gains love, does so because of their positive thoughts. And those who become poor, sick, lose their loved ones, do so as a result of negative thinking. Victims of tsunami, plague, war are victims, not because of events, but because they allowed negative thoughts to occur. And what is worse, the positive thinkers claim that is, it is their fault.

They also claim, that in order to be thin you think ‘thin thoughts’, avoid looking at fat people and ‘Ask-Believe-Receive’ then you’re guaranteed to lose weight, without actually doing anything about it. By doing the above steps, Byrne, the author of the Secret, claims she lost over 20 pounds and now maintains her “perfect weight of 116 pounds” and claims “I can eat whatever I want”. While it is reasonable (although probably still false) to believe that a certain kind of thinking might enable us to eat just enough food to meet our needs, it is incredible that a miracle occurs and the laws of biology are suspended.

Even more disturbingly, a woman in The Secret DVD says she cured herself of breast cancer by “thinking” herself well in three months – and without the aid of radiation or chemotherapy. “I believed in my heart that I was healed. I saw myself as if cancer was never in my body. One of the things I did to heal myself was to watch really funny movies,” she says in the video. Of course, we do not know whether this is a claim that her visualizing made her cancer go (and cancers do go into remission and reappear) or whether watching funny movies was effective (there is some evidence that laughter is indeed good medicine). However, what is disturbing is that there is a raft of evidence showing that positive fantasies hinder recovery in medical conditions. Furthermore, other research indicates that the presence of comforting daydreams is a predictor of cancer spread. Any suggestion that people with medical conditions should use positive fantasy alone (without the balancing negative realism), and therefore fail to deal with the reality of their condition by following their doctor’s advice is something that would, according to research, endanger these people.

Many of the claims made by positive thinking are not sustainable. Even worse, people are told they must not think of the negative. Apart from the fact that the negative needs to be carefully considered, it is impossible, as we shall see next, to avoid negative thoughts by suppressing them. There is either an ‘obsession effect’ or a rebound effect.

Believing You Must Not Think Negatively Can Rebound
The Positive Thinking movement tells us we must never think negative. The irony is that suppressing these thoughts seems to cause them to repeat. Because positive thinking tells us we must suppress negative thoughts — even though suppression makes us obsessed. This makes the teachers of positive thinking can always appear right — the believer knows they have a battle wrestling with negative thoughts and they might believe, ‘If only I could drive out these negative thoughts, I’d get what I want.’ This, however, will always fail. There is either an ‘obsession effect’, wherein we cannot stop thinking about something we try not to think about — it won’t go away. Or there is the ‘rebound effect’, wherein, after successfully pushing the negative out of our minds, the negative thoughts pour back in! One of the sure ways to get someone to think of something is to tell them not to. This is the ‘white bear effect’ which, as we will see, fascinated some Russian writers.

The White Bear Effect
The Russian writer, Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881) in Winter Notes on Summer Impressions: wrote “Try to pose for yourself this task: not to think of a polar bear and you will see that the cursed thing will come to mind every minute.”

Another Russian writer, Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) once challenged his little brother to stand in a corner until he could stop thinking of a white bear, thereby causing the poor boy to think of little else.

Harvard psychologist Daniel Wegner researched this topic and wrote a book, White Bears and Other Unwanted Thoughts: Suppression, Obsession and the Psychology of Mental Control. In one experiment, he asked subjects to think about whatever they wished, except white bears! If they did, they were to ring a bell. Wegner was deafened by the constant ringing! The subjects did not think of the bear all the time, but it kept popping into their minds.

Telling people to suppress a thought, as Tolstoy did with his little brother, puts them in a trap where the thought continues to appear. The more they try to suppress it, the more it recurs. By telling someone not to think of a negative thought, we can guarantee that they will do so.

When we become obsessed with certain thoughts, what we shouldn’t do is to suppress them (otherwise, they will recur): we should allow them to appear and learn to confront them. Allowing ourselves the luxury of negative thoughts is the better way to handle them.

The American author John Steinbeck in The Winter of Our Discontent puts it this way:

Mike heard me out, staring at a spot between my eyes. ‘Yeah!’ he said. ‘I know about that. Trouble is, a guy tries to shove it out of his head. That don’t work. What you got to do is kind of welcome it.’

This sums it up nicely. In positive thinking, this effect is tragic because the believer tries and tries to avoid the negative, but it keeps coming back. There are other techniques picked up from the positive thinkers, including positive praise, which, as we shall see, may not have the effects we expect.

Perils of Positive Praise
Carol Dweck claims that we have either a fixed or a growth mindset. Those with a fixed mindset are less open to ‘negative ideas’ than those with a growth mindset. Those with a growth mindset are happy to receive negative feedback and to handle it — it’s a fun challenge — and therefore they grow. Those with a fixed mindset, in comparison, fear anything that might challenge their self-image of being, say, ‘intelligent’. The growth mindset is encouraged by telling children ‘they worked hard’, rather than telling them that they are intelligent. The researchers found that those children praised by being told they are ‘intelligent’, or in other contexts, told they are ‘beautiful’ leads them to avoid situations where there ‘beauty’ or ‘intelligence’ might be tested. Instead of striving to succeed, they give up easily, and even avoid anything that might challenge them. By thoughtlessly using positive thinking, we may be ruining students ability to cope with learning, and ruin others ability, in say work, to perform well. Even so, we may find that an individual’s personal philosophy may, in part be to blame for their inability and problems.

The growth mindset also seems to improve management ability. When managers were taught a growth mindset, they were more willing to coach employees and the quality of their developmental coaching became higher. Also, managers with a growth mindset actually sought more negative feedback from their subordinates. They wanted to learn how to improve their management techniques and were not threatened by the idea of hearing some negative things about themselves.

Our Philosophy May Be Holding Us Back
Certain kinds of positive thinking encourage unrealistic thinking. Those who think unrealistically become inconsistent in their lives. For instance, those learned professors who claim there is no objective truth seem to be the most litigious ones, suing whomever they think has breached their copyright. Such people are a source of amusement in the philosophical community. Similarly, those politicians who adopt a lenient attitude towards criminals seem to change in an instant when they or their loved ones are victims. Because they held beliefs that are not supported by reality and experience, because they were living in a fantasy world, when the big bad reality pops up, they sometimes respond in ways completely at odds with their previous beliefs. I recall a clinical psychologist telling me that after his house was burgled, he found himself asking the police how he could get a gun! This was completely at odds with his previously caring and forgiving attitude.

This unrealistic positive thinking depends on a kind of philosophical idealism wherein the thinker believes that there is nothing that exists apart from their own minds. And thinking in a certain way changes the very nature of the world. The downside of this is that they do not take the necessary action to deal with issues, but use magical thinking to try and change their world. Of course, such thinking leaves them with less than they would have had without wasting their time in fantasy.

The sick person who fantasies getting well may, in fact, be less likely to recover or recover more slowly than those who take practical action. And those with financial problems are more likely to overcome them if they take action. In these cases, positive thinking leads to harmful risk taking, by avoiding common sense precautions, and dreaming and waiting for their problems to solve themselves by magic.

Some personal philosophies however are helpful. These are realism and rationalism. Realism is dealing with the world as it is, rather than trying to deal with it magically or idealistically. That is, collecting facts as necessary, or observing closely to understand, and taking sensible action. While realism in this sense if the most appropriate method of thinking, there are times when realism can’t be applied. Sometimes we do not know the relevant facts but we need to do something.

Of course, we do not always have to do something about a problem — we can wait until we are ready — but sometimes we need to take some action, or even to say something, even provisionally. Then we use rationalism. Rationalism, in this sense means we use logic and a reasonable, unbiased guess to understand the situation we are facing. For instance, if we were waiting for someone who promised to meet us at a particular time but was late, we could use realism if we knew, for instance, the person was reliable and would come or would phone us. Also we might know the person is always late and they would arrive in, say 15 minutes. If we could not be realistic — because we do not have any relevant facts — we could be rational, and decide to wait 10 minutes or so, and then assume the person isn’t coming and act appropriately. The ‘waiting 10 minutes’ is just an arbitrary and reasonable guess what is a good leeway to allow, and allows us to bring order to a situation in which we have no other information. We can look at our watch and if 10 minutes has passed we leave, but we could equally rationally have decided to wait 30 minutes. In any case, it would be irrational to wait 2 hours!

An idealist in the same situation might visualise the other person arriving and by distracting themselves, in this case the visualizing might serve to amuse them while they waited. But in a worst case, they could stand there visualizing for hours, while the rational or realistic thinker had long given up and made the best of the situation. Sadly, this is often the case when we use positive thinking in an idealistic manner — we feel good dreaming while the world goes to pieces around us — all for the want of a reasonable philosophy and common sense. And all for the want of appropriate action.

As we noted with the work of Carol Dweck, the work of Gabriele Oettingen, considered next, shows how positive fantasy, in the absence of reality and negative thinking can lead to failure in education, weight-loss, health and relationships.

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Positive Thoughts May Be Holding You Back
Sometimes positive visualizations can make us more likely to fail. Lien Pham at the University of California asked one group of students to visualise getting an ‘A’ in an important midterm exam. Compared with those who weren’t asked to do anything special, the visualizers did worse. Surprisingly, spending only a few minutes a day visualizing success decreases the motive to work for an important exam, and produces lower grades. This question was taken up by Gabriele Oettingen.

Writing in Peter Gollwitzer’s Psychology of Action, she asks whether positive fantasy increases success. She concluded that it sometimes makes things worse.

Consider this example. Twenty-five obese women weighting an average of 233 pounds have enrolled in a weight reduction program at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. They are asked to imaging that after completing the program they are invited to a pool party. They report their fantasies and rate them as positive or negative. They also rate their figure. Suppose one says, “I’d eat all I could – and eat everyone else’s left-overs … I’d probably still be over-weight.” And contrast this with one who reports, “I’d be very good and be careful about what I’d eat… I’d show off my slim body” Which would be more likely to lose weight? In the real study, those women with negative fantasies lost 11 kilograms more than those with positive fantasies did. This is probably surprising to most of us. Oettingen notes, “Apparently images of getting slim and resisting food temptations hindered weight loss.” But how do positive fantasies affect other aspects of health? Does positive visualization alone help us heal faster?

In 1995, Oettingen studied the effects of fantasies in children with cancer. From this study, she concluded “Positive fantasies predicted a less favorable recovery rate … Effective recovery from cancer demanded taking action (complying with medical demands and coping with painful procedures). Positive fantasies suppressed these because future recovery was perceived to occur effortlessly.” In another study, in 2002, Oettingen related positive fantasies and recovery after hip replacement surgery. She found, as before, that positive fantasy was a hindrance to recovery.

What happens when we add some negatives to the mix?
She studied positive and negative thinking in relationships, in professional success and in health. Overall, it seems that positive fantasy alone hinders progress. Negative thinking seems to be more effective, but when she had people combine thinking about the benefits as well as the problems, they did better than those who thought of the disadvantages. Both groups did better than those who thought of the positive alone. Thinking of both the positive and the negative also benefitted those undergoing hip surgery. They recovered faster than those with positive fantasies alone.

The effects of positive thinking can be even more serious. In 1987, Morgens Jensen studied 52 women with breast cancer and reported that neoplastic spread was associated with, among other things, reduced expression of negative affect, and comforting daydreaming. This too indicates the hindrance of repressing the negative and of positive fantasy.

An important issue that arises is how we deal with negative thoughts. Attempting to suppress them seems to make them more likely to occur. This is dealt with next.

Balance between positive and negative thinking
According to Robert Schwarz and Gregory Garamoni in their States of Mind Model, proposed a positive-negative mix in thought for normal people was in the ratio of the golden section. That is, 2/3 positive and 1/3 negative. The dose of caution acts as a remedy to overconfidence. This idea has, as we have seen, been shown to be supported by the work of Gabriele Oettingen.

While rational and realistic thinking is supported by a mix of positive and negative thinking, it seems that there are positive benefits of negative thinking and even negative moods.

Positive Benefits of Negative Moods
Joseph Forgas at the University of New South Wales, discovered that people in a negative mood were more critical and paid more attention to details than those in a positive mood. They are less prone to making wrong judgments, more accurate as witnesses and more able to produce effective and persuasive communications. A positive mood tended to produce creativity, flexibility, cooperation, but also reliance on mental shortcuts. A negative mood tended to make people more attentive, careful in their thinking and to put more attention on the external world.

Forgas claimed that sadness produced strategies that were more suitable to dealing with demanding situations.

Subjects who had watched a sad film were more likely to disbelieve urban myths and rumors compared with those who had watched a happy film. Those in a bad mood were less likely to make snap decisions based on racial or religious prejudices and were less likely to make mistakes in recalling events they had witnessed. Also people wrote in a more concrete and tolerant, and more successful in their communications.

Suppressing Negative Emotions Can Lead To Greater Understanding and Growth
Using evidence based techniques, Gerald Amada argues that while negative emotions may be difficult to experience, they lead to personal understanding and to growth. Close relationships lead naturally to intense emotions.

Repressing these emotions leads to:

  • shyness,
  • fatigue,
  • eating disorders,
  • guilt

Suppression can arise for several reasons:

  • believing that if they experience hatred to someone, this will magically harm them,
  • fear of losing control and
  • religious teaching .

Amada argues that negative emotions can be beneficial, or have beneficial consequences. For instance, one woman challenged the law on medical care because of her anger about the charges she experienced after her husband died. Dickens used his rage over the oppressive conditions of his childhood to write timeless novels. Amada’s basic claim is that negative thoughts can be transformed into personally fulfilling and socially constructive activity. Of course, some negative feelings such as pain have a practical result.

The Positive Side To Pain And Other Negative Emotions
While positive emotions are important in personal growth, negative emotions are also important. Negative emotions have a role similar to that of pain, telling us of the existence of a problem and where it is. While pain tends to be more specific, negative emotions can often guide us. According to natural selection, those parts of us that are unnecessary are removed. On this basis, it seems that negative emotions and feelings have a role, perhaps even an important and crucial role in our wellbeing.

It is helpful in understanding to consider the role of pain. While pain is an unwanted sensation, with a bit of thought we would never wish to eliminate the pain mechanism. Those who do not experience pain suffer serious damage to their bodies because they do not get the feedback telling them something is wrong. Pain is not the issue — it is the signal that there is something wrong and it needs to be handled.

Positive emotions motivate us to do something and negative emotions cause us to hold back. Both types of emotions can be wrong — we might feel enthusiastic to do something that we later regret, and we might feel reluctant and unsure about something which later we learn is something good for us. But our emotions are often a good guide. If we manage to ignore negative emotions we may be doing the same thing when we ignore a warning pain, and continue doing something that isn’t in our best interest. While we should not allow our emotions to be the final deciders of what we do, we should investigate them and determine why we feel as we do in relation to something we might do.

Just as we numb our bodies when we take pain killers for pain, so we numb our minds when we ignore negative emotions.

Physical pain is often quite specific about where the problem lies — a sore toe indicates a toe problem — but a negative emotion might not be so easy to fathom. For instance, we might feel negative towards someone who seems alright and this may be because we have picked up nonverbal body signals subconsciously. Although we do not know we feel negative, our minds do know, and they are trying to warn us.

It seems that the more we respect our emotions and be open to what they are telling us, the more accurate and controlled they become, so we less frequently feel irrational emotions and our feelings become more reliable.

Negative Motivation
When we are moved to do something, we may do so because the goal is attractive. We seek some desirable outcome or situation. Other times, we take action not so much because we desire the goal as because we do not like the present situation. For instance, a student studying a subject might be doing so because they enjoy studying and it is what they want to do. On the other hand, the student might not like the subject, nor like studying, but does not want to flunk out of school. In this case the motivation is to escape the undesirable consequences of not studying — flunking out. In life we often find ourselves doing things because we like them, and also doing things because we have to do them — for our job, or because we think they are important. We have a mix of positive and negative motivations.

Similarly, when we are motivating others, we might be positive, saying “You can do this,” but we might also bring in negative motivation by saying, “If we don’t succeed, then …” mentioning the negative consequences of failure.

Different people, and the same person at different times or in different situations might show a preference for positive motivation or a preference for negative motivation. For instance, a salesperson might love selling but really find paperwork a chore. She sells because she loves it, and does the paperwork because she has to. However we experience motivation, to attain our goals we need to take some action.

Taking Action
Positive thinking implies acceptance of the present and taking action, putting aside negative thoughts. Positive thinking needs to be a way of life. Avoid thinking of out-of-reach things but acknowledge the good in the present. Do things step by step.

Exaggerated positive thinking leads to lowered awareness and delusions: false sense of growth, due to lowered awareness. We need to trust our intelligence: self-trust, awareness and fearlessness. Unchecked positive thinking has no grounds in reality.

While self trust may lead to failure, it always leads to learning and personal progress. Following the herd leads to getting an inappropriate job, going into debt and gaining weight!

Self trust is particularly important when major life decisions occur– choosing a mate, a career and a lifestyle. It leads to development.

Awareness is necessary for intelligence: when you lower your awareness you miss important facts that might have helped you. Anything we don’t like is writen off. Awareness of our weaknesses however, means we can avoid activities that we cannot do or we can work on improving our weakness. Being aware might make us miserable, but ignoring problems until it is too late makes us even more miserable.

Talking to members of the opposite sex, starting a business, talking in public may be scary, but such fears are usually not rational. The solution isn’t to deceive ourselves about our fears, but to understand how they derive from a misunderstanding of reality, and by understanding reality better we are happier and more able.

While we might look to the stars to inspire us on our journey, we should also use a torch to illuminate the dark and negative. We should encourage others to express their doubts and misgivings — both in case we have genuinely overlooked something and to answer people’s concerns and make them more motivated and positive.

How to Harness the Power of Negative Thinking
While positive thinking has desirable consequences, it seems that this is not so unless it is mixed with a little negative thinking. We have seen that children brought up by positive thinking mentors lack the ability to deal with things when they go wrong. They aren’t able to cope when everything goes pear shaped!

The positive thinkers teach us we must succeed, but while it is possible we might be able to achieve anything we like in life, we certainly cannot attain everything. This means we must always fail in some things, even if this is just failing to deal with important matters because other, more important things claim our attention. And we might also fail, at least at first, in our main objectives. It seems that many ultimately successful people spent most of their lives in failure. If we cannot deal with those times when things do not go well, then we experience additional problems due to our inability to cope.

Those who practice negative thinking are more able to handle difficult situations. This is clearly true in the case of soldiers, doctors and police who have been trained to deal with situations that would make us collapse in fear or panic. For some people, it is easier to write a list of things they don’t want or want to be rid of, than to write a list of what they want.

Thinking “I’ve had enough of this,” or “This has to stop,” or even “I can’t stand it anymore,” can lead us to solve our problems and pursue happiness much better than assuming everything will go well, provided we accept that WE have to do something about our problems, and not expect the universe or god to do it for us. We decide what we don’t want and take the flip side — what we do want.

There is a certain type of beauty in negative thinking in that it gives us access to that primordial centre we all know is within ourselves – that raw, dark power that we often fear to tap into and access, because we feel we cannot control it. The idea here is that we decide that we won’t put up with any more of what we do not want, and take the action to get what we do want.

Illuminating the Negative to Enhance the Power of Negative Thinking in Business
Negative thinking is also considered important in business. For instance, David Corbin claims that in business it is crucial that managers allow for negative issues, including confrontation and bringing up negative matters. Successful businesses, he claims, need to encourage a culture of open expression of positive and negative ideas. This makes the organisation open to possible threats. Managers who have constructed a plan need to review the plan on the assumption it is flawed.

Dr. Charles Kepner and Dr. Benjamin Tregoe researched breakdowns in decision making at the Strategic Air Command in the 1950s. They found that Air Force officers who used a logical process to collect, organize and interpret information before taking action were more successful than others, irrespective of rank. They carried out experiments on groups and concluded that unexpected problems are inevitable. In this case, it seemed rational to do something about preventing them or reducing their impact. In the present world, this seems horrific to many managers who follow the positive thinking idea. Yet KT’s processes are successfully used by millions of people world-wide.

Successful people in business and management, need to add a dose of negative thinking in order to succeed. Attitudes, such as the Titanic attitude wherein the belief that the ship is unsinkable is so strong, insufficient life boats are provided — with consequent disaster. In more recent times, we have the Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident, and more recently the over-optimism of the Iraq War. In business, we have the banking crisis. With every plan, we need to spend time playing devil’s advocate and find out everything that might go wrong. If we can detect if things are going wrong in the plan, we can fix them in a timely manner.

We have seen that a dash of negative thinking (more accurately a positive-negative balance of 2:1) is necessary to season our thinking and help us avoid the extremes of negative thinking: unrealistic thinking and positive apathy. We have considered evidence that positive thinking alone can have serious consequences in politics, business, education, wellbeing and health. For instance, Barbara Ehrenreich has claimed that positive thinking has led to many of the problems in America and in the Western world. Positive thinking (the secret) makes promises that are contrary to science and common sense. For instance, research indicates that an over-concentration on the positive is ineffective, or even harmful.

In addition, positive thinking has an insidious trap called the ‘white bear effect.’ By suppressing, either negative thoughts intensify, or we get a rebound effect. We also looked at evidence that positive thinking is often allied with the individual’s personal philosophy, particularly idealism as opposed to realism and rationalism. Even well-meaning and logical positive thinkers can be led astray. Being too positive may actually damage the ability of children to learn. Carol Dweck, for instance, has shown that positive praise can have undesirable effects. This effect is also noted in managers and others who have a fixed, rather than a growth mindset.

Furthermore, according to a number of researchers, such as Gabriele Oettingen, too much positive thinking can affect our ability and even our health. In contrast with the craze for positive thinking, the value of Negative Thinking is often overlooked. For instance, we may be surprised to discover that negative thinking can have positive effects — improving our memory, judgment and motivation. In business, some negative thinking — a critical evaluation of plans, can make companies more successful by bringing into awareness unexpected problems, and encouraging managers to plan for every possibility. Overall, to be effective, it seems we need a sprinkling of negative thinking to balance positive thinking and to take action.

In contrast with positive thinking, mindfulness embraces the negative rather than trying to suppress it. Reference is always made to the current reality, retaining an objective neutrality toward its state of being, and differentiating actual reality from both negative and positive interpretations. These new approaches, added to our current knowledge of self development, will accelerate progress and understanding in our personal and spiritual development, now and in the future.

This objective, reality-based and mindful approach to self development is central to the approach I take on my own website, Freeing the Mind, hosted by Trans4mind. It is also integral to the philosophy of the courses offered by Trans4mind. If you do these courses you should expect to see stable improvements in your life skills and abilities at work. You will have better judgment, increased mental speed and will power, better self-expression, the ability to study effectively and recall what you have learned, more creative insights, and confidence in your capacity to achieve your personal goals in life.

Curious about what everyone thinks… : )



Are You a Positive or Negative Thinker? Learn About – and Change – How You Think



Hi Everyone,

Our thoughts have a big impact on how we live our lives and carry ourselves…being a negative thinker at one point in my life i have lived and seen the impact my negative thoughts had made on all aspects of my life…Here is an article on positive and negative thinker…good questions to ask yourself is which on are you?? As an educator I have come across many learners that were negative thinkers…i felt like i did not have enough knowledge to really address my learners directly about their negative thinking…this article is a good start on trying to figure out what type of thinkers you and your learners are…and if they negative type…it provides suggestions on what can be done to help change your way of thinking or your learners…here is the link to the article: 

Here is the article:

Are You a Positive or Negative Thinker?

Learn About – and Change – How You Think

Positive people are more successful.

© iStockphoto

“A man is but the product of his thoughts.
What he thinks, he becomes.”
Mahatma Gandhi

“Positive thinking will let you do everything better
than negative thinking will.”

Zig Ziglar  Personal development guru

These are two powerful quotes. Combined, they tell us that if we think positively, we’re likely to enjoy positive results. Negative thinking, on the other hand, can lead to outcomes we don’t want.

Positive and negative thoughts can become self-fulfilling prophecies: What we expect can often come true.

If you start off thinking you will mess up a task, the chances are that you will: You may not try hard enough to succeed, you won’t attract support from other people, and you may not perceive any results as good enough.

Positive thinking, on the other hand, is often associated with positive actions and outcomes. You’re drawn to, and you focus on, the positive aspects of a situation. You have hope and faith in yourself and others, and you work and invest hard to prove that your optimism is warranted. You’ll enthuse others, and they may well “pitch in” to help you. This makes constructive outcomes all the more likely.

When it comes down to it, positive, optimistic people are happier and healthier, and enjoy more success than those who think negatively. The key difference between them is how they think about and interpret the events in their life.

So, how do you think about your successes and failures? Do you have a predictable thinking pattern? Find out below.

Are You a Positive or Negative Thinker?

Take this short quiz to determine what kind of thinker you are. Click the ‘Calculate my total’ button at the foot of the quiz to get your scores.


For each statement, click the button in the column that best describes you. Please answer questions as you actually are (rather than how you think you should be), and don’t worry if some questions seem to score in the ‘wrong direction’. When you are finished, please click the ‘Calculate My Total’ button at the bottom of the test.

Question Not
at all
Rarely Some
Often Very
1 When my boss or a customer asks to speak with me, I instinctively assume that he or she wants to discuss a problem or give me negative feedback.
2 When I experience real difficulty at work/home, I also feel negative about other parts of my life.
3 When I experience a setback, I tend to believe the obstacle will endure for the long-term, e.g. “The funding didn’t come through, so I guess that means they hate the project. All that work for nothing.”
4 When a team I am on is functioning poorly, I believe that the cause is short-term and has a straightforward solution. For example, “We’re not working well at the moment, but if we can fix this problem, then we’ll do much better!”
5 When I’m not chosen for an assignment I really want, I tend to believe that I just don’t have the specific skills they are looking for right now, as opposed to thinking I am generally unskilled.
6 When something happens that I don’t like or appreciate, I can tend to conclude that the cause is widespread in nature and will continue to plague me. For example, “My assistant didn’t ‘cc’ me on that email she sent to my boss. Administrative assistants are all out to prove how much smarter they are than their supervisors.”
7 When I perform very well on an assignment, I believe that it’s because I’m generally talented and smart, as opposed to thinking I am good in that one very specific area.
8 When I receive a reward or recognition, I can tend to figure that luck or fate played more of a role than my actual work or skill, e.g. “They asked me to be the key note speaker at the conference next year. I guess the other guys were all busy.”
9 When I come up with a really good idea, I am surprised by my creativity. I figure it is my lucky day, and caution myself not to get used to the feeling.
10 When something bad happens at work, I see the contributions that everyone made to the mistake, as opposed to thinking that I am incompetent and to blame.
11 After winning an award/recognition/contract, I believe it’s because I am better than the competition. For example, “We won that large contract against two strong competitors. We’re simply better than they are.”
12 As the leader, when my team completes a project, I tend to attribute the success to the hard work and dedication of the team members, as opposed to my skilled leadership.
13 When I make a decision that proves to be successful, it’s because I have expertise on the subject and analyzed that particular problem really well, as opposed to being generally a strong decision maker.
14 When I achieve a long-term and personally challenging goal, I congratulate myself, and think about all the skills that I used in order to be successful.
 Total = 

Score Interpretation

Score Comment
14-31 Yikes! It must feel like there is a rain cloud that hangs overhead all day. You have gotten yourself into the habit of seeing things as your fault and you’ve learned to give up your control in many situations. Taking this quiz is the first step toward turning your pessimism around. Read the rest of this article carefully, and use the exercises daily. (Read below to start.)
32-50 You try to be optimistic and positive however some situations get the better of you. Identify your triggers for negative thinking and use rational thinking exercises to become naturally more optimistic. (Read below to start.)
51-70 Great job! You have a generally positive and optimistic outlook on life. You don’t take things personally and you are able to see that setbacks won’t ruin the rest of your life. (Read below for more.)

Turn Negatives into Positives

The first step in changing negative thinking is to become aware of it. For many of us, negative thinking is a bad habit – and we may not even know we’re doing it!

Consider this example: The guy on the subway who just made a face is surely directing his behavior at you. When the receptionist doesn’t greet you in the morning, you must have done something to anger her. Again! You go straight to the coffee machine, because it’s Monday morning and you just know you’ll be solving problems until lunchtime. When you finally get to your desk, your assistant is waiting for you. “Oh no,” you think. “What has he done now? The first problem of the day. Yippee!”

If you’re feeling bad after reading this, imagine how it would feel to surround yourself with that much negativity. Then ask yourself if this is the way you tend to think in your own life?

Dr Martin Seligman, who has been described as America’s most influential psychologist, has done extensive research on thought patterns. In particular, he looks at the impact of an optimistic versus pessimistic outlook on life and success.

Seligman says we explain events using three basic dimensions of Permanence,Pervasiveness and Personalization, with optimistic people on one end of the scale and pessimistic people on the other. We look at these below.


(Questions 3, 4, 9, 11)

Believing that something we are experiencing is either permanent or temporary. A low score implies that you think bad times will carry on forever. A high score shows confidence that you’ll be able to get things back on course quickly.

Pessimist: I lost my job and I’ll never find one as good again. No point even looking!

Optimist: I lost my job. Thank goodness there are other opportunities I can explore!


(Questions 2, 5, 6, 7 and 13)

Believing that situational factors cause an effect or that the effect is evidence of more universal factors at work. A low score shows that you tend to think that if you’ve experienced a problem in one place, you’ll experience that problem wherever you go.

Pessimist: I lost my job. Companies are all the same; all they care about is money. I don’t know why I bother putting in any effort at all.

Optimist: I lost my job. It’s too bad our company has to reinvent itself to stay competitive. Thankfully I learned some great transferable skills!


(Questions 1, 8, 10, 12 and 14)

Believing that something about you influenced the outcome or that something external to you caused it. A low score indicates that you tend to blame yourself for bad things, rather than attributing the cause to more general factors.

Pessimist: I lost my job. If I had been a decent employee they would have found a new job for me.

Optimist: I lost my job. I gave it my all, however they just can’t use my skill set right now.

Re-shape Your Thinking

Your answers to the questions in this quiz can show whether you have a positive or negative pattern of thinking. They’re also great starting points to become more aware of your thoughts – and the effect they have on your life.

When you’re more aware of the way you think, you can take action to use positive situations to your advantage, and re-shape the negative ones. The goal is to think positively, regardless of the situation, and make a conscious effort to see opportunities instead of obstacles.

So, in our example, if you immediately think the receptionist is mad at you because she didn’t say hello, how rational is that? Could she have been busy or distracted when you walked by? Did you say hello to her? Maybe she wasn’t feeling well, or she was in a negative mood herself. These are all more rational reasons for her behavior than simply assuming that you did something wrong.

To help you start thinking positively, see our comprehensive article on Thought Awareness, Rational Thinking, and Positive Thinking. This is a “must read” for everyone, even very positive thinkers, because it shows why positive thinking is so important, and it discusses how to turn negative thought patterns into positive ones.

Persistent negative thinking can cause mental health problems, including depression. While these positive thinking techniques have been shown to have a positive effect, they are for guidance only, and readers should take the advice of suitably qualified health professionals if they are experiencing persistent unhappiness.

Key Points

Becoming more positive is always a good thing. Using this quiz, you can identify where and how much you tend to think negatively. The more aware you are of your thoughts, the better you’ll be able to change them to emphasize the positive.

Positive thinking usually attracts positive people, events, and outcomes. If you want to create an environment where you’re successful and satisfied, you’ll need the power of positive thinking on your side.

You may not be aware of all of your negative thoughts and the effect they have on your life, however, by taking some time to understand your own thought patterns, you can challenge those irrational, negative thoughts – and replace them with more positive, optimistic and empowering messages.

Looking forward to seeing what you think about positive and negative thinkers and how it impacts learning…